Today would be the the 813th birthday of one of the most compelling figures in medieval history, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. In honor of this fascinating intellectual leader, I invite readers to learn about his cultural legacy.
The following are a series of articles and excerpts of historical texts in which readers can learn about the emperor who spoke nine languages, was a crucial patron of science and art, was called an Antichrist by Pope Gregory IX, and was excommunicated from the Catholic Church twice.
He was referred to as Stupor Mundi (wonder of the world).
Frederick II